Tveskaeg can tune to measure on most NMR isotopes frequencies. More than 100 isotope frequencies covering most atomic numbers can be targeted individually with 100% selectivity and robustness.
Any targeted isotope has a defined NMR spin number which in combination with the molecular size and the surrounding fluid viscosity, pH value and natural abundance of the isotope play a major role in NMR T1 and T2 and overall sensitivity. Furthermore oxidation state of the isotope, temperature and paramagnetic contents of the surrounding water can have an effect.
Several of these effects will be automatically compensated for via continuous internal Hydrogen reference measurements. Some effects, like specific oxidation states, that might make the isotope paramagnetic (and thereby invisible to NMR) cannot be compensated for. One such isotope that goes undetected by NMR is copper(2+) in ionic form in water. Besides this, elemental copper is one of the most sensitive isotopes for NMR.
For each given isotope, the precise frequency can differ a little bit depending on actual chemical bindings. As an example, there are approximately 250 ppm difference in frequency between the 3 nitrogen species ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. In this way Tveskaeg can distinguish between nitrogen isotopes located in different chemical bindings. In case there is no or very little frequency shift, NMR T1 and T2 timings can be used to obtain further selectivity.
This means, there often is additional work involved when developing and validating algorithms for a new industrial application. Plans do exist to enable Tveskaeg costumers to update/change the selected algorithms with new ones and even to enable third parties to develop and launch algorithm’s for Tveskaeg products.
Currently Nanonord has Tveskaeg NMR knowledge covering many chemical species including but in no way limited to: ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, urea, phosphorus, boron, silicon, sodium, lithium, chlorine, arsenic, lead, sulphur, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, potassium, copper, aluminum and aluminum oxides. The list will be expanded widely the next years to come.
Sensitivity limits are defined by noise levels and typically range from less than 100 ppb @ 1 hour data sets on the most sensitive isotopes like boron and sodium to 5 ppm @ 1 hour on medium sensitive isotopes to 1 ‰ @ 1 hour on least sensitive isotopes like oxygen.
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